Several classes of common medications lower serum total prostate-specific antigen (tPSA) levels according to a 2010 publication by Chang, et al. Statins, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), and thiazide diuretics, among the most commonly used drugs in the world, all significantly lowered tPSA in this analysis of 1,864 American men over the age of 40 years. Use of a thiazide and a statin together for 5 years led to a 36% reduction in tPSA levels. Calcium channel blockers actually eliminated this effect of statins on tPSA. It is unknown how these medications cause this effect.